The Good, the Bad and the Population Growth.

The purpose of this post is to present information regarding the world’s population growth and how it is related with our natural resources. Also, we are going to see the two different percpectives on this issue and accordingly each side’s predictions and suggestions for the years to come.

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[4] World Population

What about now? What about today?

I shall start by saying that the world population has reached the stagering number of 7 billion people with a continuously increasing rate of growth every year.There are several reasons for the population growth that we are experiencing..

First of all we should mention the high birth rates that keep increasing as well as the low death rate.Additionally our technological advantages and of course the innovations concerning the field of medicines have contributed fairly enough. Alsom through urbanisation, resources are being used in a higher rate . Last but not least we should not forget the fact of immigration and of refugees using conserved resources. And so here we are having an increase in poverty  inequality and decrease in life quality..becoming more and more. [2]

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[5] Urbanization

As a result, we cannot but wonder..can earth support all this population? When talking about carrying capacity ,we define it as the maximal population size of a given species that an area can support without reducing its ability to support the same species in the future. Although we cannot say exactly how many people are the limit for earth’s carrying capacity we can be pretty sure that we are on our way to reaching it. Or not? [1]

We have have a big debate and the teams are : The Cornucipians VS the Cassandras.

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[6] Cornucipians VS the Cassandras

The Cornucopians claim that with the help of the technological advances we will find a solution and resources will not run off but instead people will continue to have possibly alternative sources to get their nutrients and power from.

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On the other hand we have the Cassandras who state that the population continues increasing and we keep exploiting our resources at this rate then eventually we will have nothing left and we will be unavoidably lead to a world catastrophe.
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Personally, I believe that anything done excessively has bad consequences and right now we are overexploiting earth’s resources. Therefore, I do think that unless we change our current behaviour , it may not be tomorrow, but close is the day when our resources will vanish.

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[7]Paul Ehrlich.

Paul Ehrlich is an American biologist and Professor of Population Studies at Stanford University. He is well known for his book The Population Bomb where he predicted a mass starvation of humans in the 1970s and 1980s due to overpopulation. He also suggested that immediate action should be taken in order to limit population growth.

Ehrlich created the IPAT equation, which is a formula used to describe the impact of human activity on the environment. More specifically human impact (I) on the environment equals (=) the product of Population (P), Affluence (A), Technology (T). It describes how these three factors contribute toward our environmental impact.

United States

To begin with, the United States are a huge,developed country with great technology. Additionally, the afluence of the U.S is really high and of course increasing.What’s more,there are no restrictions on births per family .What does this say for the IPAT? Obviously the United States have a really big impact on the world’s environment.

China

First of all,China’s technology development is quite remarkable and it’s increasing rate extremely high.When it comes to the affluence however,China is lower than the US.However, China’s population is staggeringly higher than this of the US. We should mention at this point that steps have been taken for the population’s decrease; yet  the (P) factor at the time is high and also is the (T) and so is China’s IPAT result.

Greece

Greece’s population is relatively low, at 11 million inhabitants. About the technological developement? We wish we had at least some! What’s more when we talk about Greece’s affluence,especially nowadays that the economical crisis is taking place, it is obvious that Greece does not have a big (A) impact on its IPAT . The result is a very small IPAT and a very small therefore impact on the environment.

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[8]Hans Rosling

Hans Roslingis professor of International Health at the Karolinska Institutet, the medical university in Stockholm, Sweden. Additionally,he discovered konzo, a formerly unknown paralytic disease caused by malnutrition and intoxication.He has also studied other links between poverty and health in Asia and Latin America and been an adviser regarding vaccination and essential drugs to WHO, UNICEF and Sida. He co-founded Médecines sans Frontiers in Sweden and is a member of the International Group of the Swedish Academy of Science.Besides pioneering global health teaching in both under and post graduate training and recently published “GLOBAL HEALTH, an introductory textbook”,he also co-founded Gapminder (www.gapminder.org), a non-profit venture for development of software that unveils the beauty of statistics by converting boring numbers into enjoyable moving and interactive graphics. His award winning lectures with animated statistics were labeled “humorous, yet deadly serious”. In 2007 Google acquired the animation software from Gapminder and Hans Rosling is now pioneering the use of animated statistics to show global trends on video and in TV. [3]

[9] Rosling on TED

What Rosling tries to emphasize on is that we can still make changes and provide a better future for the next generations. In his lecture he clearly shows the difference between different parts of the world and the evolution between the years. It is shocking to see what the expectations used to be and how they changed through the years. What’s more I found really intersting the change of the death rates and I believe that we should all be disturbed by the picture presented in the 3rd world countries. I think that his graphs can be very educational for everyone although I personnally believe that the general picture given as a conlusion is very optimistic. I really wish that the future takes the path Rosling suggests but I trully think that what he says is difficult to be succeeded. After all maybe I am just a Cassandra, opposed to his Cornucipian,ambitious views.

[10]Gapminder’s data for 1900[10].Gapminder’s data for 1975

10.Gapminder’s data for 2011

As we can see from Gapminder’s charts the life expectancy overall in the world has increased drastically over the last century. My country has experienced also a life expectancy change as well with people living more an more years. This change has come since the last century science has taken many steps forward. More specifically, the field of medicines and generally the health section has had incredible innovations. Also, the quality of life has been improved . It is therefore for us to see how Greeks can live up to those ages nowadays.

Conclusion.

All in all, as we can see population is a big issue for the world and especially in this era that it has reached the outstanding number of 7 billion. The predictions can be either positivity or negative but it is in our choice to select what’s going to happen in the future. I personally believe that unless we take drastic actions, the resources will eventually end. It is not imposible though , still, to improve the situation and “design” a bright future.

Works Cited

1. “Daily, G. C., Ehrlich”, P. R. (1992). Population, Sustainability, and Earth’s Carrying Capactiy. Bioscience.

2. “Withgott, J. & Brennan, S”. (2010). Environment: The science behind the stories. 4th Ed. San Francisco: Pearson Education.

3.”Hans Rosling – Biography.” Hans Rosling – Biography. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2012. <http://www.worldcongress.com/speakerBio.cfm?speakerID=2163&gt;.

4.”October 12 1999: The World Population Hits 6 Billion.” HowStuffWorks. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2012. <http://people.howstuffworks.com/population-six-billion.htm&gt;.

5.”Explain THAT Science!: World Population and Statistical Lies.” Carl Sagans Dance Party. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2012. <http://csdphumor.com/2011/02/15/world-population-and-statistical-lies/&gt;.

6.”Club Wyndham vs. WorldMark, the Club.” Club Wyndham vs. WorldMark, the Club. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2012. <http://www.sellingtimeshares.net/club-wyndham-vs-worldmark-the-club/&gt;.

7.”Paul Ehrlich Still Prophesying Doom, and Still Wrong.” News Paul Ehrlich Still Prophesying Doom and Still Wrong Comments. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2012. <http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/tomchiversscience/100153735/paul-ehrlich-still-prophesying-doom-and-still-wrong/&gt;.

8.Christakis, Nicholas A. “Hans Rosling.” Time. Time, n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2012. <http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,2111975_2111976_2112170,00.html&gt;.

9.”CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: Hans Rosling in TED: Religions and Babies.”CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: Hans Rosling in TED: Religions and Babies. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2012. <http://paulacarrielsoc151.blogspot.gr/2012/06/hans-rosling-in-ted-religions-and.html&gt;.

10.http://www.gapminder.org/

Population ecology : Sex ratio in the United States of America.

This post is going to be devoted in the subject of population ecology. What is population ecology then? It examines the dynamics of population change and the factors that affect the distribution and abundance of members of a population. In a few words, this particular field helps us understand why populations of some species decline while others increase. All populations have some factors that determine their future such as their size,density,distribution age structure as well as birth and death rates and of course sex ratio.[7]

Population Ecology.[1]

 The last topic, sex ratio, is the one that this post will refer specifically to , and the original question to be answered is ” What is the sex ratio in the United States of America? “

To begin with,what do we call sex ratio?

Man vs Woman  [6]

Sex ratio is the proportion of males and females and it can influence whether the population will increase or decrease in size over time. A balanced sex ratio maximizes population growth while an unbalanced one leaves individuals of one sex without mates.

When it comes to human beings.

Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong preference for sons. This will affect future marriage patterns and fertility patterns. Eventually, it could cause unrest among young adult males who are unable to find partners.

According to the Census research sex ratio is defined as the number of males per 100 females. A sex ratio of exactly 100 would indicate an equal number of males and females, with a sex ratio under 100 indicating a greater number of females. [2]

Have you ever wondered what is the sex ratio of Americans?

Sex ratio [2]

The sex ratio at birth in the United States has been around 105 males for every 100 females, however, since mortality at every age is generally higher for males, the sex ratio naturally declines with age. This tendency progresses through ages 85 and above where there are considerably more surviving women. These trends result in more males at younger ages and more females at older ages. Sex ratios can vary from these patterns for many reasons such as the impact of international or domestic migration on a population or features of the geographic location (for example, the existence of college student housing or military facilities).

According to the 2010 Census, the population of the United States on April 1, 2010, was 308.7 million people, representing a 9.7 percent increase in population since 2000, when the population was 281.4 million.

More specifically :157.0 million were female (50.8 percent) while 151.8 million were male (49.2 percent). Between 2000 and 2010, the male population grew at a slightly faster rate (9.9 percent) than the female population (9.5 percent).

Sex ratios were higher in Western states and lower in Northeastern states and compared to 2000, there were fewer counties in 2010 where the female population outnumbered the male population.

Notice that! : There were approximately twice as many women as men at age 89 (361,309 compared with 176,689, respectively). This point occurs about 4 years older than it did in 2000, and 6 years older than it did in 1990. This increase is further evidence of the narrowing gap in mortality between men and women occurring at the older ages.[2]

Where are all the men? [5]

And if you have been wondering what is the world’s sex ratio,here is your answer.

World at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

World Sex Ratio [3]

It is very interesting to know about the sex ratio when it comes to human beings and researches such as this of Census can help researchers studying trends related to mortality and population aging.  Overall, the USA population ratio is balanced, predisposing a population increase. Have you ever wondered about your country’s sex rate? If so, you can satisfy your curiosity on CIA’s official site, by clicking on this link :

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2018.html

References :

[1] “What Is Population Ecology?” What Is Population Ecology? N.p., n.d. Sun. 11 Nov. 2012. <http://home.comcast.net/~sharov/PopEcol/lec1/whatis.html&gt;.

[2]”Census Bureau.” Census Bureau. N.p., n.d. Sun. 11 Nov. 2012. <http://www.census.gov/&gt;.

[3]”Central Intelligence Agency.” Welcome to the CIA Web Site — Central Intelligence Agency. N.p., n.d. Sun. 11 Nov. 2012. <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2018.html&gt;.

[4]”Sex Ratio Images.” Sex Ratio Pictures and Images. N.p., n.d. Sun. 11 Nov. 2012. <http://www.zeably.com/Sex_ratio&gt;.

[5] “Old Ladies.” http://www.actnow.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. <http://www.actnow.com.au/Opinion/Dont_shun_a_young_mum.aspx&gt;.

[6] “Men vs. Women in Weight Loss.” P90X Reviews Day by Day Reviews of the P90X Workouts. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. <http://www.90dayreview.com/2011/08/03/men-vs-women-in-weight-loss/&gt;.

[7] Withgott, Jay, Barbara W. Murck, and Scott R. Brennan. Environment: The Science Behind the Stories. Toronto: Pearson Canada, 2009. Print.